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Uranium Mill Tailings Management - USA

(last updated 10 Oct 2011)

Contents:

> See also: Decommissioning Data - USA


CURRENT ISSUES


INTRODUCTION

Papers:

Annual Reports

Maps & Tables:


SITE SPECIFIC INFORMATION

UMTRA Site Info

Links to UMTRA Site Info
DOE EIA
2001
EM/ER
BEMR
1996
PEIS
Ground-
water
Project
Technical
Reports *
Legacy
Mgmt.
Issues
Monument ValleyArizona X X X X X X X
Tuba City X X X X X X X
DurangoColorado X X X X X X X
Grand Junction X X X X X X X
Gunnison X X X X X X X
Maybell X X X X X X X
Naturita X X X X X X X
New Rifle X X X X X X X
Old Rifle X
Slick Rock X X X X X X X
LowmanIdaho X X X X X X X
DOE EIA
2001
EM/ER
BEMR
1996
PEIS
Ground-
water
Project
Technical
Reports *
Legacy
Mgmt.
Issues
Ambrosia LakeNew Mexico X X X X X X X
Shiprock X X X X X X X
BelfieldNorth Dakota X X X X X   X
Bowman X X X X X  
LakeviewOregon X X X X X X X
Canons-
burg
Penn-
sylvania
X X X X X X X X X X
Falls City ***Texas X X X X X X X
Green RiverUtah X X X X X X X
Mexican Hat X X X X X X X
Monticello **   X X   X X X
Salt Lake City X X X X X X X
RivertonWyoming X X X X X X X
Spook X X X X X X X

* full-text and bibliographic records of DOE-sponsored reports - 1996 to present (Javascript and Cookies required). Click here and perform Simple Search for facility name

** for Monticello (Utah), see also:

*** for Falls City (Texas), see also:

 

Commercial uranium processing site info

Colorado:

New Mexico:

South Dakota:

Washington

 


LEGISLATION & REGULATIONS

Uranium Mining Bibliography

See also: Current Regulatory Issues (USA)


Summary of the U.S. Uranium Mill Tailings Standards

U.S. EPA Standards for Uranium Mill Tailings (40 CFR 192)

time frame for control effectiveness   goal   1000 years
                                       limit   200 years
radon-222 release rate                 20 pCi/m2s  =  0.74 Bq/m2s
radon-222 concentration in free air
  (outside site, above background)     0.5 pCi/l  =  18.5 Bq/m3


U.S. EPA Standards for Soil Cleanup

radium-226 concentration     top 15 cm    5 pCi/g  =  0.185 Bq/g
  (above background)         deeper      15 pCi/g  =  0.555 Bq/g


U.S. EPA Standards for Buildings

indoor radon-222-progeny concentration (including background)
     goal    0.02 WL  =  0.42 µJ/m3  =  74 Bq/m3 EEC
     limit   0.03 WL  =  0.62 µJ/m3  = 111 Bq/m3 EEC
indoor gamma dose rate
  (above background)    20 µR/h  =  1.434 pA/kg  =  175.5 nGy/h

EEC = equivalent equilibrium concentration


U.S. NRC Groundwater Standards for Tailings Sites (10 CFR 40)

Ag  0.05 mg/l     As  0.05 mg/l     Ba  1.0  mg/l     Cd  0.01 mg/l
Cr  0.05 mg/l     Hg  0.002 mg/l    Pb  0.05 mg/l     Se  0.01 mg/l

Combined Ra-226 and Ra-228          5 pCi/l  =  0.185 Bq/l
Gross alpha-particle activity
  (excluding radon and uranium)    15 pCi/l  =  0.555 Bq/l


U.S. EPA Groundwater Standards for Inactive Sites

Mo  0.10 mg/l
NO3- (as N)  10 mg/l  (equiv. 44.29 mg/l as NO3-)

Combined Ra-226 and Ra-228          5 pCi/l  =  0.185 Bq/l
Combined U-238 and U-234           30 pCi/l  =  1.11 Bq/l
                            (equiv. 0.044 mg/l for equilibrium)
Gross alpha-particle activity      15 pCi/l  =  0.555 Bq/l
  (excluding radon and uranium)

Supplemental Standards (= relaxed standards) can be
established under certain conditions.


TECHNICAL DOCUMENTS

Feasability Analysis: A Comparison of Phosphogysum and Uranium Mill Tailing Waste Unit Designs, by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Solid Waste, January 1997, 33p.
Available by Download (238k PDF)

Technical Resource Document: Uranium - Extraction and Beneficiation of Ores and Minerals, Volume 5, U.S.EPA Office of Solid Waste, EPA/530-R-94-032, NTIS/PB94-200987, November 1994, 125 p. [Report briefly characterizes the geology of uranium ores and the economics of the industry. Describes uranium extraction and beneficiation operations with specific reference to the waste and materials associated with these operations and the potential environmental effects that may result from uranium mining. Uranium processing wastes are not addressed in this profile. Report concludes with a description of current regulatory programs that apply to the uranium mining industry as implemented by Federal land management agencies and selected states.]
Order address: National Technical Information Service
Also available by Download (536k PDF).

Technical Approach Document, Rev.2, published by U.S. DOE Albuquerque Operations Office, NM (USA), Uranium Mill Tailings Project Office, Albuquerque NM, December 1989, 305 p., Report No. DOE/UMTRA-050425-0002, Order No. DE91005807 [comprehensive manual on the technologies used for uranium mill tailings management in the US: disposal cell design approach, cover design, geological stability, geotechnical stability, radon attenuation, water resources protection, alternate site selection, etc.]
Order address: National Technical Information Service

Technical Approach to Groundwater Restoration, U.S. DOE, DOE/AL/62350-20F, November 1993, 48 p.

Ground-Water Protection Standards for Inactive Uranium Tailings Sites (40 CFR 192). Background Information for Final Rule. U.S. EPA, EPA 520/1-88-023, March 1989, 276 p.
> Download via NEPIS

See also:

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