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In-Situ Leaching Decommissioning Projects - USA

(last updated 19 Apr 2017)

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Wyoming · Texas

Site Index

Boots/Brown · Bruni · Burns/Moser · Christensen Ranch · Clay West · Highland (PRI) · Hobson · Holiday/EL Mesquite · Irigaray · Kingsville Dome · Lamprecht · Mt. Lucas · O'Hern · Palangana · Pawnee · Tex-1 · West Cole · Willow Creek · Zamzow

> See also: Decommissioning Data - USA

 


Wyoming

Christensen Ranch · Highland (PRI) · Irigaray · Willow Creek

Highland (PRI), Wyoming

> View deposit info
> Power Resources, Inc.
> See also: Highland ISL operational issues

 

Cameco applies for relaxed groundwater restoration standards at Mine Unit B of Smith Ranch Highland in situ leach mine

On May 22, 2013, Cameco Resources submitted an application for an Alternate Concentration Limit (ACL) license amendment for the completion of restoration of Mine Unit B at the Smith Ranch Highland Uranium Project.

 Maximum Concentration Value
(10 CFR 40 App. A)
Background ConcentrationAlternate Concentration Limit (proposed)
Arsenic and compounds, not otherwise specified0.05 mg/L0.00319 mg/L0.141 mg/L
Radium-226 and radium-2285 pCi/L
(0.185 Bq/L)
829.6 pCi/L
(30.7 Bq/L)
2230 pCi/L
(82.5 Bq/L)
Uranium and compounds, not otherwise specifiednone0.225 mg/L6.30 mg/L
Selenium and compounds, not otherwise specified0.01 mg/L0.0029 mg/L0.134 mg/L

 

Insufficient data available to assess long term post mining groundwater conditions at Highland in situ leach uranium mine, study finds

"[...] Regulatory measurements performed at a Wyoming in situ uranium mine were collected and analysed to ascertain the efficacy of remediation and potential long term environmental impact. Based on the measurements, groundwater sweeping followed by reverse osmosis (RO) treatment proved to be a highly efficient method of remediation. However, injection of a reductant in the form of H2S after groundwater sweeping and RO did not further reduce the aqueous concentration of U, Mn, or Fe.
Low concentrations of target species at monitoring wells outside the mined area appear to indicate that in the long term, natural attenuation is likely to play a major role at reductively immobilizing residual (after remediation) concentrations of U(vi) thus preventing it from moving outside the mined area.
Our analysis indicates the need for additional monitoring wells and sampling in conjunction with long term monitoring to better understand the impacts of the different remediation techniques."

Determination of contaminant levels and remediation efficacy in groundwater at a former in situ recovery uranium mine, by Borch T , Roche N, Johnson TE, in: Journal of Environmental Monitoring Vol. 14, No. 7 (April 2012), p. 1814-1823

The study is based on the data published by Power Resources Inc. in "Report entitled 'A-Wellfield Ground Water Stability Report' submitted to the WDEQ in Correspondence dated March 31, 2000", available as Attachment C in Adams Acc. No. ML040300369 .

NRC identifies irregularities with groundwater restoration at Mine Unit B of Cameco's Highland in situ leach uranium mine; Cameco pursues request for relaxed standards

"By letter dated June 26, 2009, Cameco submitted its Mine Unit B Ground Water Restoration Report for NRC approval. The report contained supporting data and related historical documentation leading to approval of the restoration by the Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality (WDEQ) between 2004 and 2008.
During the acceptance review, staff observed that one monitor well appeared to remain on excursion status at the completion of groundwater restoration. Additionally, the staff identified that there appeared to be pumping activities at several perimeter and overlying monitor wells during the stability monitoring period that were not fully described in the report. By letter dated September 29, 2009, the staff did not accept it for a detailed technical review. Since that time, Cameco has re-evaluated the groundwater restoration data for Mine Unit B and has decided to pursue a request for alternate concentration limits (ACLs) in this mine unit to accompany the revised report."
> Download Public Meeting Summary , Nov. 10, 2011
> Download Acceptance Review Mine Unit B Groundwater Restoration Completion Report , September 29, 2009
> Download Mine Unit B Groundwater Restoration Report , June 26, 2009

Wyoming DEQ issues Notice of Violation to PRI for failure to conduct concurrent reclamation at Smith Ranch/Highland in situ leach mine

On March 10, 2008, the Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality issued a Notice of Violation to PRI for failure to conduct concurrent reclamation and to follow approved permits at the Smith Ranch/Highland in situ leach mine:
a. Wellfield C was in production for approximately ten years. The approved Mine Plan states, "Once a wellfield is installed it takes approximately one to three years to recover the leachable uranium from a production area." Extending the production time period has become a routine practice and is not in compliance with the approved permit or the requirement for concurrent reclamation.
b. In addition to the production phase, Wellfield C has now been in restoration for ten years. The 2007 Annual Report states that the ground water quality is similar to "end of mining" wellfield conditions. The permit states that restoration and stability are estimated to take approximately five years. This restoration delay is not in compliance with the approved permit or the requirement for concurrent reclamation.
c. Wellfield E has removed 100% of the leachable reserves, and in recent years wellfield production has slowed to maintenance levels. This rate of production delays completion of mining and restoration of this wellfield unit. This is not in compliance with the approved permit, and is a violation of Chapter 2, Section 2(b)(ii) which requires coordination of the Mine and Reclamation Plans to facilitate orderly development and reclamation.
d. The timetable listing the schedule of mining-related activities in the permit (Figure A, page OP-3A) and the timetable provided in the 2007 annual report both indicate that PRI is not in compliance with their restoration schedules for Wellfields C, D, and E. The schedule shows that Wellfield C should be decommissioning instead of in restoration, and that Wellfields D and E should be in restoration instead of production.

> Download Notice of Violation, March 10, 2008 (ADAMS Acc. No. ML080840311)

> See also Smith Ranch operational issues

Wyoming DEQ approves restoration of Highland ISL A-Wellfield

By letter dated Nov. 25, 2003, the Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ), Land Quality Division (LQD), approved the restoration of the A-Wellfield of Power Resources' Highland uranium ISL site, although not all parameters were returned to baseline values.
"The Land Quality Division has reviewed the fate and transport modeling conducted by PRI and concurs that the modeling indicates natural attenuation will prevent the groundwater within the wellfield from endangering (with an exceedance of EPA's MCL's) the class of use of the adjacent groundwater. [...]"
DEQ LQD determined
"[...] that although the groundwater has not been returned to baseline conditions, the groundwater quality is consistent with the pre-discharge use suitability of the water (Class IV(A) suitable for industry). [...]
However, because the groundwater conditions differ from the background water quality and because of the reliance on natural attenuation for the protection of adjacent groundwater monitoring will be required to substantiate the model predictions."
By letter dated Jan. 15, 2004, PRI requested NRC to concur with the Wyoming DEQ determinations.

The A-Wellfield 20-Sand Production Zone was mined using the In Situ Leach (ISL) mining method from January 1988 until July 1991. PRI then completed groundwater restoration from July 1991 to October 1998.


Willow Creek, Wyoming

(formerly Christensen Ranch / Irigaray)

NRC Facility Info

> View site info
> See also Operational issues for Christensen Ranch / Irigaray

 

NRC denies approval of groundwater restoration in Mine Units 2 - 6 at Christensen Ranch in-situ leach uranium mine site

Upon review of the Wellfield Restoration Report for the Christensen Ranch Project submitted by then-owner Cogema Mining, Inc. on March 5, 2008, NRC staff is not approving the restoration in Mine Units (MU) 2 through 6 as requested by Cogema.
> Download NRC letter to Uranium One, Oct. 23, 2012
> Download Technical Evaluation Report, Oct. 23, 2012 · Attachment I · Attachment II

 

Cogema requests license renewal for restoration of Christensen Ranch / Irigaray in-situ leach uranium mine site, Wyoming

On May 30, 2008, Cogema Mining Inc. requested a license renewal for its Christensen Ranch / Irigaray in-situ leach uranium mine site. The site is currently undergoing groundwater restoration.
Note: on April 3, 2007, COGEMA Mining, Inc. had requested an amendment of the license for its Irigaray/Christensen Ranch facilities to revert to an operating (uranium production) status from the current restoration and decommissioning status (view details).

 

Cogema seeks approval for groundwater restoration at Christensen Ranch in-situ leach site - with uranium levels still up to 27 times the target restoration value and up to 128 times the drinking water standard

By letter dated June 8, 2010, NRC notified current mine owner Uranium One Inc. that it has determined that corrective action is required regarding the excursion observed at monitoring well 5MW66.

On March 5, 2008, Cogema Mining Inc. submitted the Wellfield restoration report for Mine Units 2-6 of its Christensen Ranch uranium in-situ leach mine in Wyoming.
Constituents that exceeded Target Restoration Values (TRVs) and either WDEQ or EPA standards in at least one Mine Unit were iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), selenium (Se), total dissolved solids (TDS), uranium (U) and radium-226 (Ra-226). The uranium values are listed below.
According to Cogema, groundwater within the production zone has been restored to the pre-mining class of use and the groundwater restoration meets the requirements for unconditional restoration approval by WDEQ and NRC.

Uranium Concentrations [mg/L]
Mine UnitPost Restoration Wellfield AverageTRVEPA MCL
20.360.0340.03
30.1160.3760.03
43.830.230.03
52.050.0760.03
61.180.060.03

Exceedance factor for uranium (rounded)
Mine UnitTRVEPA MCL
211 x12 x
3-4 x
417 x128 x
527 x68 x
620 x39 x
TRV = Target Restoration Value
EPA MCL = U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Maximum Contaminant Limit

> Downloads:
ML081060131 (44.6 MB PDF):

ML081060132 (44.5 MB PDF): ML081060140 (17 MB PDF):

 

Wyoming DEQ and NRC approve groundwater restoration performed at Irigaray ISL site

On Nov. 1, 2005, the Land Quality Division of the Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality (WDEQ) approved the groundwater restoration at the Irigaray Mine, Production Units 1 through 9, though two constituents (bicarbonate and manganese) out of 29 did not meet their target restoration value.
On Sep. 20, 2006, NRC issued a Technical Evaluation Report concurring with WDEQ's approval:
"COGEMA has not restored ground water to primary, or background, standards. However, because of the restoration efforts made by COGEMA and the use of best practicable technology, the NRC considers the WDEQ secondary restoration standards and the NRC premining use category as the applicable restoration standards in lieu of the primary goal of restoration in LC 10.16. The WDEQ class-of-use standards (NRC premining use standards) have been met and approved by WDEQ, and the NRC concurs with this approval. Therefore, the NRC concludes that ground-water restoration to the premining use category in LC 10.16 is complete in COGEMA Irigaray Mine production units 1 through 9 and that wellfield decommissioning can commence."

 

EPA issues another aquifer exemption for Christensen Ranch ISL disposal wells

Federal Register July 22, 2002 (Vol.67, No.140) p. 47721 (download full text)
"SUMMARY: [...] Today's approval of this new aquifer exemption will allow COGEMA to use the newly permitted Class I injection wells to inject ground water restoration waste fluids from the Wasatch Formation into the Lance Formation. As a result of this increased disposal capacity, COGEMA will be able to restore the Wasatch ground water more quickly and pump and treat less ground water. The rate of pumping out of the Wasatch will prevent any negative impact to the adjacent portions of this USDW. [...]"

> See also Federal Register January 30, 2001 (Vol.66, No.20) p.8234-8236 (download full text)

 

NRC to authorize surface decommissioning at Christensen Ranch

Federal Register January 4, 2002 (Vol.67, No.3) p.612 (download full text)

"SUMMARY: The U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) proposes to amend NRC Source Material License SUA-1341 to authorize the licensee, COGEMA Mining Incorporated (COGEMA) to conduct surface (land and structures) decommissioning according to the submitted plan.
An Environmental Assessment (EA) was performed by the NRC staff in support of its review of COGEMA's license amendment request, in accordance with the requirements of 10 CFR part 51. The conclusion of the Environmental Assessment is a Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) for the proposed licensing action."
A request for a hearing must be filed within 30 days from January 4, 2002.

 

Cogema issues decommissioning plan for Christensen Ranch / Irigaray

On Dec. 19, 2000, COGEMA Mining, Inc. issued its Decommissioning Plan for Irigaray and Christensen Ranch Projects.
> The plan is available at ADAMS (Docket No. 04008502)

 

License violations at Christensen Ranch / Irigaray in-situ leaching site

Find more events under operating issues

 


Texas

Boots/Brown · Bruni · Burns/Moser · Clay West · Hobson · Holiday/EL Mesquite · Kingsville Dome · Lamprecht · Mt. Lucas · O'Hern · Palangana · Pawnee · Tex-1 · West Cole · Zamzow

General

USGS presents study of groundwater restoration at uranium in-situ leach mines in south Texas

In Texas, 27 mines were developed by construction of 77 well fields, termed Production Authorization Areas (PAAs). Only 22 PAAs from 13 mines have final sample values. These 22 PAAs form the basis of the USGS study of restoration at these well fields.

> Download Groundwater restoration at uranium in-situ recovery mines, south Texas coastal plain , by Susan Hall, U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 20091143, 2009, 32 p.

 

Permission of relaxed groundwater restoration standards matter of habit with shutdown of uranium in situ leach facilities in Texas

Texas historically allows uranium mining companies to amend the levels of minerals in restored groundwater once mining operations are complete said Jim Blackburn, Goliad County's lawyer concerning uranium mining. These levels are routinely greater than those established during the mining permit process, Blackburn told the commissioners court.
According to Texas Commission on Environmental Quality records, 51 requests for “amended restoration tables to make them higher” have been granted out of 80 uranium mining production areas. The data include uranium mining permits issued during the last “20 or 30 years,” Blackburn said. “Not a single request to make the clean-up level values higher has ever been denied, according to the records we have researched so far,” Blackburn said. Of the 29 remaining mine sites, many still operate and don't yet have final restoration values. “By and large, even the original restoration values are higher than the drinking water standards. The levels that were left are higher than the drinking water standards,” he said. (Victoria Advocate Sep. 22, 2008)

> Download B.K. Darling's Report on Findings Related to the Restoration of In Situ Uranium Mines in South Texas , Sep. 29, 2008 (ALTURA)

An examination of 32 permits from closed South Texas in-situ leach mines showed that in each case, companies were permitted to leave behind minerals such as uranium, molybdenum and selenium at higher levels in groundwater than were listed in the original permit. In some cases, companies were able to meet the restoration target for one mineral but reported 10- and 20-fold increases in others. Older mines tended to require more drastic permit amendments than mines started later. (Corpus Christi Caller-Times, Nov. 5, 2006)


Kingsville Dome, Kleberg County, Texas

> View deposit info

URI lets license for Kingsville Dome uranium in situ leach mine expire

On April 12, 2017, the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) approved URI's request to withdraw the applications to renew and amend UIC Permit No. UR02827, which authorizes the in situ recovery of uranium at Kingsville Dome, without prejudice to refiling. URI had filed the request on June 15, 2016.
> Download TCEQ Marked Agenda April 12, 2017 (PDF) (see Item 1)
> Download TCEQ Docket No. 2015-1268-UIC (PDF file containing download links to actual documents)

> See also: Texas Commission on Environmental Quality grants hearing on proposed license renewal and amendment for Kingsville Dome uranium in situ leach mine

Fire at former Kingsville Dome in situ leach uranium mine site

"On Sunday, January 22, 2017, at 1041 [CST], the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality CID [Critical Infrastructure Division] received a call from URI's Radiation Safety Officer [RSO], for the Kingsville Dome facility, that a fire occurred on the west side of well field 17 in Production Area 3, on Sunday morning, January 22, 2017. [The RSO] stated the cause of the fire appeared to be a cigarette butt. A URI operator working at the site noticed the fire. When the operator arrived at the fire location, he noticed that the fire department (FD) was already putting out the fire. At the time of the call, according to [the RSO], the fire was under control and the FD was making sure to put out the hot spots. At the time of the fire, the well field was on a shutdown status and there were no other activities at the well field. The preliminary findings were damage to some of the well field fences and wells in the well field."
(NRC Event Report, Event Number: 52506, Jan. 23, 2017)

Uranium Resources, Inc. can resume Kingsville Dome in situ leach operations after cleaning groundwater, judge rules

A uranium company must clean more groundwater but will be allowed to resume mining in a certain area of Kleberg County, a judge ruled Friday (May 18). The ruling brings a close to a five-month trial. It also is a climax in the decades-long, politically charged debate about the mining of uranium ore, the raw material for nuclear fuel, in a geologic formation known as the Kingsville Dome southeast of the city.
Off and on since 1988, Uranium Resources, Inc. has mined the formation with a process called in-situ recovery. The process involves pumping an oxygenating solution into underground water to dissolve the uranium ore so it can be pumped out of the ground. After mining, companies are required to restore the groundwater to a condition similar to that before mining. They pump it from the ground, clean and filter it, return restored water to the site and inject waste products into disposal wells. URI said it has restored more than 1.6 billion gallons of groundwater in the Kingsville Dome. (Corpus Christi Caller Times May 19, 2012)

Firefighters battle brush fire at former uranium in situ leach mine

Firefighters are working to contain a brush fire at a former uranium mining operation in Kleberg County near Ricardo. An official with Uranium Resources, Inc. confirmed that the Ricardo Fire Department is at the scene fighting the blaze, which is being fueled by near 40 mph winds. The site, once an in-situ uranium mining operation, currently is in the reclamation process, meaning it is no longer an active mine, said Rick Van Horn, senior vice president of operations for the company. "Right now, what's burned is just a lot of grass and some plastic PVC pipe that, most recently, was filled with water used in the reclamation process," he said. He said the mine, a mostly-underground operation whose only landmarks are a few aboveground water tanks and a small operator's shed, has not been in use since 2008. (Corpus Christi Caller Times August 9, 2011)
> View details (with photos!) (powertechexposed.com)

> View older issues


Bruni, Texas

License violations at Bruni ISL restoration site

Radioactive Material Spill - Cogema Mining, Inc. - Bruni, Texas

"On May 11, 1998" [obviously should read 1999] ", the Licensee notified the Agency of a 2000 gallon" (7.6 m3) "spill of 11.7 parts per million uranium impregnated restoration water due to the failure of a 1" nipple and union on the well field pipe. The spill spread over approximately 1,800 square feet" (167 m2) "within a restricted area."
[SUMMARY OF INCIDENTS FOR SECOND QUARTER 1999, Texas Department of Health, Bureau of Radiation Control]

Uranium Spill - Cogema Mining, Inc. - Bruni, Texas

"On May 26, 1998, the Licensee notified the Agency of a uranium spill involving approximately 8,000 gallons" (30 m3) "of restoration flow solution containing 7.4 parts per million uranium that occurred on May 21, 1998. The spill was caused by a failure at a pipe connection and was contained within the licensed area."
[SUMMARY OF INCIDENTS FOR SECOND QUARTER 1998, Texas Department of Health, Bureau of Radiation Control]

Uranium Spill - Cogema Mining, Inc. - Bruni, Texas

"On May 4, 1998, the Licensee notified the Agency of a uranium spill involving approximately 20,000 gallons" (76 m3) "of restoration flow solution containing 8.6 parts per million (5.7 microcuries per gram) uranium that occurred on May 2, 1998. The spill was caused by the failure of a saddle on the lateral line and was contained within the licensed area."
[SUMMARY OF INCIDENTS FOR SECOND QUARTER 1998, Texas Department of Health, Bureau of Radiation Control]

Uranium Spill - Cogema Mining, Inc. - Bruni, Texas

"On February 5, 1998, the Licensee notified the Agency of a uranium spill involving 2500 gallons" (9.5 m3) "of disposal well fluid containing 7.2 parts per million uranium that occurred on February 4, 1998. The spill occurred at a waste retention pond transfer pump and was contained in the licensed area."
[SUMMARY OF INCIDENTS FOR FIRST QUARTER 1998, Texas Department of Health, Bureau of Radiation Control]

Uranium Spill - Westinghouse Electric Corporation - Bruni, Texas

"On December 15, 1997, the Licensee notified the Agency of a uranium spill involving 3000 gallons" (11 m3) "of restoration solution containing 5.0 parts per million uranium that occurred on December 13, 1997. Cold weather caused a pipe to break resulting in the spill. The spill covered approximately 7350 square feet."
[SUMMARY OF INCIDENTS FOR FOURTH QUARTER 1997, Texas Department of Health, Bureau of Radiation Control]


Burns/Moser, Texas

License termination

The Texas Department of Health (department) gives notice that it has terminated uranium by-product material license L02449 issued to USX Corporation. (Texas Register May 10, 2002 )
A written hearing request must be received, from a person affected, within 30 days from the date of May 10, 2002.

Release for unrestricted use

The Moser wellfield patterns area was released for unrestricted use. (Texas Register July 13, 2001)

Relaxed Groundwater Standards, Production Area 2

"HAZARDOUS WASTE PERMITS: USX - Texas Uranium Operations (USX) for a production area authorization (PAA) restoration table amendment (RTA) to Burns/Moser Mine Production Area Number 2, Authorization Number UR01890-021, which would change ground-water constituent concentrations that are to be met by the permittee (USX) to achieve successful restoration of the site's mined aquifer in PAA 2. The proposed amendment would change restoration table concentration values for calcium, magnesium, potassium, bicarbonate, sulfate, nitrate, alkalinity, manganese, molybdenum, selenium, uranium, and ammonia. Furthermore, a restoration table concentration value for radium has been added to complete the restoration table in the original PAA issued for Production Area Number 2 on October 12, 1982." [...]
"Uranium mining took place at Burns/Moser Mine Production Area Number 2 from May 1979 to June 1986, after which ground-water restoration of the ore-bearing aquifer began. Since restoration efforts were initiated, approximately 1.633 billion gallons" [6.181 million cubic meters] "of aquifer water have been removed during the restoration process. Under 30 Texas Administrative Code 331.107(f), the permittee has the option to request an amendment to the PAA Restoration Table, provided that, among other things, an appropriate effort has been made to achieve the permit restoration table values. The Executive Director has prepared a final draft PAA to address USX's RTA request. The Burns/Moser Mine site lies in the south central portion of Live Oak County, approximately ten miles southwest of George West, Texas adjacent to U.S. Highway 59." (TNRCC Items Signed by Executive Director 18 December 1998 - emphasis added)

Relaxed Groundwater Standards, Production Area 3

"HAZARDOUS WASTE PERMITS: USX - Texas Uranium Operations (USX) for a production area authorization (PAA) restoration table amendment (RTA) to Burns/Moser Mine Production Area Number 3, Authorization Number UR01890-031, which would change ground-water constituent concentrations that are to be met by the permittee (USX) to achieve successful restoration of the site's mined aquifer in PAA 3. The proposed amendment would change restoration table concentration values for calcium, magnesium, potassium, bicarbonate, sulfate, total dissolved solids, alkalinity, arsenic, iron, manganese, and uranium." [...]
"Uranium mining took place at Burns/Moser Mine Production Area Number 3 from March 1980 to June 1986, after which ground-water restoration of the ore-bearing aquifer began. Since restoration efforts were initiated, approximately 409.85 million gallons" [1.551 million cubic meters] "of aquifer water have been removed during the restoration process. Under 30 Texas Administrative Code 331.107(f), the permittee has the option to request an amendment to the PAA Restoration Table, provided that, among other things, an appropriate effort has been made to achieve the permit restoration table values. The Executive Director has prepared a final draft PAA to address USX's RTA request. The Burns/Moser Mine site lies in the south central portion of Live Oak County, approximately ten miles southwest of George West,Texas adjacent to U.S. Highway 59." (TNRCC Items Signed by Executive Director 18 December 1998 - emphasis added)

Relaxed Groundwater Standards, Production Area 1

"HAZARDOUS WASTE PERMITS: USX Corporation: Texas Uranium Operations (USX) for modification to Production Area Authorization (PAA) UR01890-011, Burns/Moser mine. A PAA is issued as part of the base permit (UR01890-001) to approve the initiation of mining activities. A PAA application contains monitor well locations, water quality data based on pre- mining conditions for use in establishing groundwater restoration targets, and hydrologic test data that shows connection between production wells and production zone monitor wells. The permit and PAA 1 were issued and mining began in 1980. Mining continued until 1986. Restoration, using groundwater sweep and reverse osmosis, was from 1981 to 1997.
USX is requesting amendment of the restoration table under 30 TAC 331.107(f)(2).The proposed amendment would change restoration table values specifying groundwater constituent concentrations for calcium, magnesium, potassium, bicarbonate, sulfate, arsenic, iron, manganese, selenium, ammonia, molybdenum, radium-226, uranium. These values are to be met by the permittee (USX) to achieve successful restoration of the mined aquifer in PAA 1. The proposed values will not change the use category of the water. The average water quality present before mining exceeded the TNRCC and EPA primary drinking water standard for radium-226. Before mining commenced, the water in the production area was used for rural domestic, livestock, and industrial purposes. The Burns/Moser site is in Live Oak County approximately ten miles southwest of George West, west of U.S. Highway 59 in the Jacob Cook Survey 171, A-142 and Wesley Sellman Survey 60, A-416. The facility is an in situ uranium mine in the Lower Oakville Formation, 250 to 400 feet below the surface." (TNRCC Items Signed by Executive Director 11 December 1998 - emphasis added)

Relaxed Groundwater Standards, Production Area 4

"HAZARDOUS WASTE PERMITS: USX Corporation - Texas Uranium Operations (USX) for modification to Production Area Authorization (PAA) UR01890-041, Burns/Moser mine. A PAA is issued as part of the base permit (UR01890-001) to approve the initiation of mining activities. A PAA application contains monitor well locations, water quality data based on pre- mining conditions for use in establishing groundwater restoration targets, and hydrologic test data that shows connection between production wells and production zone monitor wells. The permit and PAA 4 were issued and mining began in 1986. Mining continued until 1987. Restoration, using groundwater sweep and reverse osmosis, was from 1987 to 1997.
USX is requesting amendment of the restoration table under 30 TAC 331.107(f)(2). The proposed amendment would change restoration table values specifying groundwater constituent concentrations for arsenic, calcium, iron, manganese, magnesium, molybdenum, potassium, alkalinity, ammonia, chloride, conductivity, sulfate, TDS, radium 226, uranium. These values are to be met by the permittee (USX) to achieve successful restoration of the mined aquifer in PAA 4. The proposed values will not change the use category of the water. The average water quality present before mining exceeded the TNRCC and EPA primary drinking water standard for radium-226. The Burns/Moser site is in Live Oak County approximately ten miles southwest of George West, west of U.S. Highway 59 in the Jacob Cook Survey 171, A-142 and Wesley Sellman Survey 60, A-416. The facility is an in situ uranium mine in the Lower Oakville Formation, 230 to 280 feet below the surface." (TNRCC Items Signed by Executive Director 4 December 1998 - emphasis added)

Hobson, Texas

> View deposit info

Department of State Health Services issues Agreed Order imposing $2,500 penalty on violations at Hobson

"Notice is hereby given that the Department of State Health Services (department) issued Agreed Orders to the following registrants: [...]
- Everest Exploration, Inc. (License Number L03626) of Corpus Christi. A total penalty of $2,500 shall be paid by registrant for alleged violations of 25 Texas Administrative Code, Chapter 289. The registrant shall also comply with additional settlement agreement requirements. " (Texas Register Aug. 3, 2007)

Texas Commission on Environmental Quality considers Agreed Order imposing $41,500 penalty with $40,900 deferred on violations at Hobson

"Texas Commission on Environmental Quality
Enforcement Orders
An agreed order was entered regarding Everest Exploration, Incorporated, Docket No. 2001-0828-UIC-E on May 16, 2003 assessing $41,500 in administrative penalties with $40,900 deferred.
Filed: May 27, 2003" (Texas Register June 6, 2003)

Texas Commission on Environmental Quality issues Agreed Order imposing $600 penalty on violations at Hobson

"UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL ENFORCEMENT AGREED ORDER
Item 23. Docket No. 2001-0828-UIC-E. Consideration of an Agreed Order assessing administrative penalties and requiring certain actions of Everest Exploration, Incorporated in Karnes County; TCEQ Waste Disposal Well Permit No. 168; for underground injection control violations pursuant to chs. 7 and 27 of the Tex. Water Code and the rules of the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality. (Laurencia Fasoyiro, Gloria Stanford)
Issue agreed order, RM/KW. All Agree" (TEXAS COMMISSION ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY, Marked Agenda May 14, 2003)

"Notice of Opportunity to Comment on Settlement Agreements of Administrative Enforcement Actions
[...]
(1) COMPANY: Everest Exploration, Incorporated;
DOCKET NUMBER: 2001-0828-UIC-E;
TCEQ ID NUMBER: 168;
LOCATION: approximately one mile south of Hobson along Farm-to-Market Road 81, Karnes County, Texas;
TYPE OF FACILITY: uranium production;
RULES VIOLATED:
TCEQ Waste Disposal Well Permit Number 168, Sections XII. C - E, by failing to inspect the pond liner and pond monitor well on a weekly basis, the dikes on a quarterly basis, and the pond freeboarding and piping on a daily basis, and failing to notify the executive director when the freeboard decreased to less than two feet;
30 TAC 331.64(f)(1) and TCEQ Waste Disposal Well Permit Number 168, Section VIII.A and H, by failing to monitor the annulus fluid levels and the corrosion of the well materials;
TCEQ Waste Disposal Well Permit Number 168, Section V.D. by failing to measure the specific gravity of the injected waste at 78 degrees Fahrenheit;
30 TAC 331.64(c), and TCEQ Waste Disposal Well Permit Number 168, Section VII.A, by failing to maintain continuous recording devices in proper operating condition;
30 TAC 331.64(c)(1), by failing to install an automatic alarm system at the well designed to sound and shut-in the well when pressures and flow rates exceed range and/or gradient specified in the permit;
30 TAC 331.63(f), by failing to calibrate gauges, pressure sensing devices, and recording devices on a quarterly basis;
30 TAC 37.21 and 37.201(c), by failing to revise its trust agreement to conform to the wording requirements of 30 TAC 37.301(a) and (b);
PENALTY: $600;
STAFF ATTORNEY: Laurencia Fasoyiro, Litigation Division, MC R-12, (713) 422-8914;
REGIONAL OFFICE: San Antonio Regional Office, 14250 Judson Road, San Antonio, Texas 78233-4480, (210) 490-3096." (Texas Register March 14, 2003)

State issues Agreed Order replacing Emergency Order for cleanup of uranium in-situ leach sites

"On February 25, 2002, the director of the Bureau of Radiation Control (bureau), Texas Department of Health, approved the settlement agreement between the bureau and Everest Exploration, Inc. (licensee-L03626) of Corpus Christi. The licensee has agreed to conduct specified decontamination and decommissioning activities at the uranium processing facilities located at its Hobson, Mt. Lucas and Tex-1 sites no later than July 15, 2002. The Agreed Order substitutes for the Emergency Order issued by the bureau to the licensee on January 14, 2002." (Texas Register Mar. 22, 2002, notice )

BRC authorizes soil homogenisation at irrigation sites

"The Texas Department of Health (department) gives notice that it has amended uranium by-product material license L03626 issued to Everest Exploration, Incorporated (mailing address: P.O. Box 1339, Corpus Christi, Texas, 78403). Amendment seven authorizes the licensee to remediate three former irrigation projects utilizing soil homogenization, and updates standard conditions.
The department's Bureau of Radiation Control, Division of Licensing, Registration and Standards has determined, pursuant to 25 Texas Administrative Code (TAC), Chapter 289, that the licensee has met the standards appropriate to this amendment. [...]" (Texas Register, March 8, 2002 )

A written hearing request must be received, from a person affected, within 30 days from March 8, 2002.

State issues Emergency Order to Everest Exploration, Inc. for cleanup of uranium in-situ leach sites

"Notice is hereby given that the Bureau of Radiation Control (bureau) ordered Everest Exploration, Inc. (licensee-L03626) of Corpus Christi to immediately complete decontamination and decommissioning of the uranium processing facilities located at its Hobson, Mt. Lucas, and Tex-1 sites. The bureau determined that failure to timely and adequately decommission these facilities constitutes an emergency that requires immediate action to protect the public health and safety and the environment. [...]" (Texas Register Feb. 8, 2002, notice )

State issues notice of violation and proposal to assess an administrative penalty of $100,000

"Notice is hereby given that the Bureau of Radiation Control (bureau), Texas Department of Health (department), issued a notice of violation and proposal to assess an administrative penalty to Everest Exploration, Inc. (licensee-L03626) of Corpus Christi. A total penalty of $100,000 is proposed to be assessed to the registrant for alleged violations of 25 Texas Administrative Code, 289.252 and 289.260. [...]" (Texas Register Sep 21, 2001)
Note:
25 TAC 289.252: Licensing of Radioactive Material
25 TAC 289.260: Licensing of Uranium Recovery and Byproduct Material Disposal Facilities

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Mt. Lucas, Texas

State issues Emergency Order to Everest Exploration, Inc. for cleanup of uranium in-situ leach sites

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Tex-1, Texas

U.S. NRC concurs with proposed partial license termination for former Tex-1 in situ leach uranium mine

After the review of the January 22, 2013, final Completion Review Report, "the NRC has determined that all applicable standards and requirements have been met prior to partial termination of an Agreement State license. The State of Texas may release the Tex-1 site for unrestricted use and amend the South Texas Mining Venture, LLP, Texas Radioactive Material License No. R03626 to remove the Tex-1 site." (NRC letter to TCEQ June 5, 2013)

TCEQ issues draft Completion Review Report for former Tex-1 uranium in situ leach mine

> Download draft Completion Review Report, License Number: R03626, July 9, 2012

State issues Emergency Order to Everest Exploration, Inc. for cleanup of uranium in-situ leach sites

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Holiday - El Mesquite, Duval County, Texas

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U.S. NRC concurs with proposed partial license termination for former Holiday/El Mesquite in situ leach uranium mine

After the review of the January 24, 2013, final Completion Review Report, "the NRC has determined that all applicable standards and requirements have been met prior to partial termination of an Agreement State license. The State of Texas may release the Holiday/El Mesquite Project site for unrestricted use and amend the Uranium One USA, Inc. Texas Radioactive Material License No. R03024 to remove the Holiday/El Mesquite Project site." (NRC letter to TCEQ June 3, 2013)

TCEQ issues Draft Completion Review Report for decommissioning of Holiday - El Mesquite uranium in situ leach mine

> Download Draft Completion Review Report, July 24, 2012

COGEMA request for relaxed groundwater restoration standards

On Nov. 10, 2004, the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality granted hearing requests relating to the groundwater restoration at El Mesquite Production Area 7 northern portion and Holiday Production Area 7 northern portion, and Holiday Production Area 1 eastern portion. Cogema has applied for changes to the specifications for groundwater restoration at these sites.

TNRCC issues orders assessing penalties against COGEMA

Texas Register, Feb. 22, 2002:
"Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission
Enforcement Orders
[...]
An agreed order was entered regarding COGEMA MINING, INC., Docket No. 2001-0868-UIC-E on February 4, 2002 assessing $8,700 in administrative penalties.
[...]
An agreed order was entered regarding COGEMA MINING, INC., Docket No. 2001-0823-UIC-E on February 4, 2002 assessing $5,000 in administrative penalties. "
Marked AGENDA:
"Wednesday, January 30, 2002

TEXAS NATURAL RESOURCE CONSERVATION COMMISSION
[...]
UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL ENFORCEMENT AGREED ORDERS Item 79. Docket No. 2001-0823-UIC-E. Consideration of an Agreed Order assessing administrative penalties against Cogema Mining, Inc. in Webb County; Class I Permit No. WDW 195; for underground injection control violations pursuant to Tex. Water Code chs. 7 and 27 and the rules of the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission. (Thomas E. Jecha)
Issue agreed order, RH/KW. All Agree

Item 80. Docket No. 2001-0868-UIC-E. Consideration of an Agreed Order assessing administrative penalties against Cogema Mining, Inc. in Duval County; Class I Permit Nos. WDW-150 & WDW-151 and Class III Permit No. UR02155-001; for underground injection control violations pursuant to Tex. Water Code chs. 7 and 27 and the rules of the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission. (Sushil Modak, Tom Jecha)
Issue agreed order, RH/KW. All Agree

Relaxed Groundwater Standards

"HAZARDOUS WASTE PERMITS: COGEMA Mining, Inc. (COGEMA) for a restoration table amendment of a Production Area Authorization (PAA) for Holiday Mine Production Area 6 (also known as Grid 6), Permit Number UR02156-061 which would change ground-water constituent concentrations that are to be met by the permittee to achieve successful restoration of the site's mined aquifer in PAA 6. The proposed amendment would change restoration table concentration values for calcium, carbonate, bicarbonate, sulfate, alkalinity, manganese, molybdenum, selenium, uranium, and radium-226." [...] "The Holiday Mine 6 lies in Duval County, approximately 5 miles east of Bruni. Mining was begun in August 1992 and ended in September 1995, after which ground-water restoration of the ore-bearing aquifer began. Since restoration efforts were initiated, approximately 396 million gallons of aquifer water have been removed during the restoration process." [...] [Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission: Items Signed by Executive Director October 30, 1998 - emphasis added]


Clay West, Texas

License termination

The Texas Department of Health (department) gives notice that it has terminated uranium by-product material license L02449 issued to USX Corporation. (Texas Register May 10, 2002 )
A written hearing request must be received, from a person affected, within 30 days from the date of May 10, 2002.

Release for unrestricted use

The Clay West wellfield patterns area was released for unrestricted use. (Texas Register July 13, 2001)

Relaxed Groundwater Standards

"USX Corporation: Texas Uranium Operations (USX) for a modification to Production Area Authorization (PAA) UR02130-011, Clay West mine. A PAA is issued as part of the base permit (UR02130-001) to approve the initiation of mining activities in Production Area 1 within the permit area. The PAA application contains monitor well locations, water quality data based on pre-mining conditions for use in establishing groundwater restoration targets, and hydrologic test data that shows connection between production wells and production zone monitor wells. The permit and PAA were issued and mining began in December 1977. Mining continued until February 1984. Restoration, using ground-water sweep and reverse osmosis, was from March 1981 to May 1997.
USX is requesting amendment of the restoration table under 30 TAC 331.107(f)(2). The proposed amendment would change restoration table values specifying groundwater constituent concentrations for calcium, magnesium, potassium, bicarbonate, sulfate, arsenic, iron, manganese, selenium, ammonia, molybdenum, radium-226, and uranium, which are to be met by the permittee (USX) to achieve successful restoration of this site's mined aquifer in PAA 1. The proposed values will not change the use category of the water. The average water quality present before mining exceeded the TNRCC and EPA primary drinking water standard for radium-226. Before mining commenced, the water in the production area was used for rural domestic, livestock, and industrial purposes. The Clay West site is in Live Oak County approximately eight miles southwest of George West, west of U.S. Highway 59 in the J. Poitevent Survey 67, H. and G.N. R.R. Survey 69, and H. and G.N. R.R. Survey 71. The facility is an in situ uranium mine in the Lower Oakville Formation, at 250 to 400 feet below the surface, undergoing groundwater restoration." [TNRCC Items Signed by Executive Director September 18, 1998 - emphasis added]


O'Hern, Texas

NRC concurs with proposed partial license termination for former O'Hern in situ leach uranium mine

After review of the January 24, 2013, final Completion Review Report, "the NRC has determined that all applicable standards and requirements have been met prior to partial termination of an Agreement State license. The State of Texas may release the O'Hern Project site for unrestricted use and amend the Uranium One USA, Inc. Texas Radioactive Material License No. R03024 to remove the O'Hern Project site." (NRC letter to TCEQ June 3, 2013)

Relaxed Groundwater Standards (Production Area 4)

"COGEMA Mining, Inc. (COGEMA) for a restoration table amendment of a Production Area Authorization (PAA) for O'Hern Mine Production Area 4 (also known as Grid 4), Permit Number UR01941-041 which would change ground-water constituent concentrations that are to be met by the permittee to achieve successful restoration of the site's mined and shallow aquifers in PAA 4. The proposed amendment would change restoration table concentration values for calcium, magnesium, sodium, bicarbonate, sulfate, chloride, TDS, manganese, molybdenum, selenium, uranium, ammonia and boron." [...] "The O'Hern Mine 4 lies in Webb County, approximately 4 miles east of Bruni. Mining was begun in January 1979 and ended in February 1990, after which ground-water restoration of the ore-bearing and shallow aquifers began. Since restoration efforts were initiated, approximately 155 million gallons of aquifer water have been removed during the restoration process." [...] [Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission: Items Signed by Executive Director October 30, 1998 - emphasis added]

Relaxed Groundwater Standards (Production Area 1)

"COGEMA Mining, Incorporated (COMIN) for a production area authorization (PAA) restoration table amendment (RTA) to O'Hern Mine Production Area Number 1 (also known as Grid 1), Permit Number UR01941-011, which would change ground-water constituent concentrations that are to be met by the permittee (COMIN) to achieve successful restoration of the site's mined aquifer in PAA 1. The proposed amendment would change restoration table concentration values for calcium, magnesium, carbonate, sulfate, molybdenum, and uranium." [...]
"Uranium mining took place at the O'Hern Mine Production Area Number 1 from November 1975 to September 1990, after which ground-water restoration of the ore-bearing aquifer began. Since restoration efforts were initiated, approximately 129 million gallons of aquifer water have been removed during the restoration process. Under 30 Texas Administrative Code 331.107(f), the permittee has the option to request an amendment to the PAA Restoration Table, provided that, among other things, an appropriate effort has been made to achieve the permit restoration table values." [...] [TNRCC Items Signed by Executive Director 4 September 1998 - emphasis added]


Boots/Brown, Texas

Release for unrestricted use

The Boots/Brown wellfield patterns area was released for unrestricted use. (Texas Register July 13, 2001)

Relaxed Groundwater Standards

"USX - Texas Uranium Operations (USX) for a production area authorization (PAA) restoration table amendment (RTA) to Boots/Brown Mine Production Area Number 1, Permit Number UR02154-011, which would change ground-water constituent concentrations that are to be met by the permittee (USX) to achieve successful restoration of the site's mined aquifer in PAA 1. The proposed amendment would change restoration table concentration values for calcium, magnesium, potassium, bicarbonate, sulfate, fluoride, alkalinity, iron, selenium, ammonia, molybdenum, and radium-226." [...]
"Uranium mining took place at Boots/Brown Mine Production Area Number 1 from May 1978 to July 1987, after which ground-water restoration of the ore-bearing aquifer began. Since restoration efforts were initiated, approximately 1.70 billion gallons" [6.435 million cubic meters] "of aquifer water have been removed during the restoration process. Under 30 Texas Administrative Code 331.107(f), the permittee has the option to request an amendment to the PAA Restoration Table, provided that, among other things, an appropriate effort has been made to achieve the permit restoration table values." [...] [TNRCC Items Signed by Executive Director 4 September 1998 - emphasis added]


Palangana, Texas

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Palangana ISL site released for unrestricted use

"Notice of Uranium By-Product Material License Amendment issued to Rio Grande Resources Corporation

The Texas Department of Health (department) gives notice that it has amended uranium by-product material license L01234 issued to Rio Grande Resources Corporation, for its Palangana Project, located in Duval County in the Palangana Dome area about 5.5 miles north of Benavides and 0.6 miles west of FM 3196, (mailing address: P.O. Box 1000, Hobson, Texas, 78117). Amendment number 17 releases the licensed area for unrestricted use while awaiting United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission concurrence on license termination. [...]" (Texas Register, Jan. 29, 1999)

Palangana license transfered to Rio Grande Resources

The radioactive material license RW1234 issued by the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission (TNRCC) to Chevron Resources Company, agent for Chevron U.S.A., Inc. for the Palangana project was transfered to Rio Grande Resources Corporation. The license was renumbered to L01234. (Texas Register, Oct. 31, 1997)

Relaxed Groundwater Standards (Production Area No. 1)

"Item 4.
Docket No. 95-0877-UIC. Consideration of an application by CHEVRON U.S.A., INC., DBA CHEVRON RESOURCES COMPANY for an amendment to the production area authorization for Production Area No. 1 under existing Permit No. UR02051-011 at its Palangana in situ uranium mine site. The proposed amendment would revise restoration values for conductivity, ammonia, molybdenum, radium-226 and alkalinity. The proposed values will not change the use category of the water. Prior to mining, the water in the production area was used for livestock. Chevron Resources Company has met the following criteria set forth in 30 TAC 331.107(f)(2) for an amendment to restoration table values: a) reasonable efforts have been taken by the company to restore the aquifer; b) the formation water in the aquifer is suitable for any use to which it was suitable prior to mining; and c) further restoration efforts would consume energy, water, or other natural resources of the state without providing a corresponding benefit to the state. The Palangana site is approximately 5.4 miles north of Benavides, and .6 mile west of Farm Road 3196, in Duval County. Texas. The production zone is in the Goliad Formation at a depth of 230 to 390 feet below land surface. (Lisa Roberts)

Approved, PR/RM"
(CONTESTED AGENDA, June 14, 1995, TEXAS NATURAL RESOURCE CONSERVATION COMMISSION - emphasis added)


Pawnee, Texas

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Pawnee ISL site released for unrestricted use

The Pawnee Production Area was released for unrestricted use. (Texas Register, March 19, 1999)


West Cole, Texas

Application for relaxed groundwater standards (Production Area No. 2)

"COGEMA MINING, INC., West Cole Mine Paa 2, P.O. Box 228, Bruni, Texas 78344, an in situ uranium mine undergoing ground water restoration, has applied for a restoration table amendment to a production area authorization UR02463-021. The West Cole mine is in Webb County 40 miles east of Laredo and two miles north of Bruni on the west side of Farm Road 2050. Mining started in West Cole Production Area No. 2 in January 1982. Restoration began in December 1989 using groundwater sweep, reverse osmosis, and injection of water from an underlying aquifer. Since restoration started, 19.01 pore volumes or approximately 181 million gallons" [0.685 million cubic meters] "of aquifer water have been removed. One pore volume equals 9.6 million gallons. The proposed amendment would change the restoration table in accordance with 30 TAC 331.107." (Texas Register June 4, 1999 - emphasis added)

Relaxed Groundwater Standards (Production Area No. 1)

Excerpt from: TEXAS NATURAL RESOURCE CONSERVATION COMMISSION: June 27, 1997, ITEMS FOR EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR SIGNATURE - emphasis added

HAZARDOUS WASTE PERMITS

Item 18.
"COGEMA MINING, INC. for an amendment to the production area authorization for Production Area No. 1 under existing Permit No. UR02463-011 (West Cole Mine Site). The proposed amendment would revise restoration values for calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, bicarbonate, TDS, conductivity, alkalinity, selenium, uranium, molybdenum and radium-226. The proposed values will not change the use category of the water. Prior to mining, the water in the production area was used for livestock. The West Cole Project is located in Webb County, Texas, approximately 40 miles east of Laredo and approximately two miles north of Brunion on the west side of Farm Road 2050. The production zone is the Soledad member of the Catahoula formation at a depth of appoximately 225 to 270 feet."

SIGNED JUNE 27, 1997


Lamprecht, Texas

After decades, reclamation of Lamprecht uranium ISL mine still imcomplete

"Although NRC is not the regulator of this site, the NRC staff is aware of the State of Texas (the State) regulatory activities for the former International Energy Corporation in situ uranium recovery operations that includes both the Lamprecht and Zamzow well field locations. We understand the State has revoked the license due to the licensee's lack of adequate action to reclaim the surface contamination at the properties to unrestricted use levels. The State regulators have been pursuing use of the financial surety funds to complete the reclamation of the properties. This activity is currently in litigation and will likely go to trial later this year. Our understanding is that upon a decision by the court on the use of the surety funds, it will take one to two years to complete the surface reclamation of these properties."
(NRC letter dated Aug. 26, 2009, to Tim Smith, ADAMS Acc. No. ML092290189 ; emphasis added)


Zamzow, Texas

Relaxed Groundwater Standards

Excerpt from: TEXAS NATURAL RESOURCE CONSERVATION COMMISSION: June 27, 1997, ITEMS FOR EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR SIGNATURE - emphasis added

DISTRICT MATTERS
HAZARDOUS WASTE PERMITS

Item 21.
"INTERCONTINENTAL ENERGY CORPORATION (IEC) for an amendment to Production Area Authorization No. 1 (Permit No. UR02108-011) at the Zamzow Mine Site. The proposed amendment would change restoration values for sodium, bicarbonate, pH, alkalinity, arsenic, ammonia, uranium, molybdenum, and radium-226. Prior to mining, the water in the production area was used for livestock. The water will remain suitable for this use with the proposed values. The Zamzow Project is located in Live Oak County, Texas, approximately eight miles east of the Three Rivers and 65 miles northwest of Corpus Christi. The production zone is in the Oakville sand at a depth of 35 to 225 feet or approximately 65 to 130 feet below mean sea level."

SIGNED JUNE 27, 1997

Excerpt from Uranium Institute News Briefing 97.28:
"US: Cima Energy's groundwater restoration activities at former ISL uranium mines in South Texas were concluded when the Texas Natural Resources conservation Commission approved the completion of groundwater restoration at the Zamzow site. The three Cima mines involved - Zamzow, Lamprecht and Pawnee - were the last three ISL operations in the US to use ammonium bicarbonate, and according to Cima president Wallace Mays, the cleanup is probably the largest groundwater restoration project ever undertaken. (Cima Energy, 9 July)"

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