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This page covers general aspects of the front end of the nuclear fuel chain.
For details, see Uranium Mining and Milling and Uranium Enrichment and Fuel Production
- Conversion of uranium to uranium hexafluoride:
- Enrichment of natural uranium:
- Downblending of Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) for nuclear fuel use:
- Re-enrichment (upgrading) of depleted uranium tails:
- Recycling of plutonium (recovered from spent fuel by reprocessing) in MOX fuel
- Recycling of reprocessed uranium (recovered from spent fuel by reprocessing)
- Nuclear fuel fabrication
- Nuclear Fuel Cost Calculator
Calculate the official and the hidden cost of nuclear fuel: The market price for nuclear fuel does not necessarily include the future waste management costs linked to its production.
- Recycled Nuclear Fuel Cost Calculator
Calculate and compare the material balance and nominal cost of nuclear fuel from enriched natural uranium, re-enriched depleted uranium tails, enriched recycled uranium, recycled plutonium (MOX), and downblended highly enriched uranium (HEU).
- Uranium Mine Feasibility Calculator
Determine the economic feasibility of a uranium mine and mill: establish the material and cost balance of uranium mine and mill operations.
- Uranium Enrichment Cost Optimizer
Determine the optimum tails assay, for which the cost of enriched uranium is minimized, based on market prices for uranium and for enrichment work.
- Depleted Uranium Value Calculator
Determine the monetary value of depleted uranium tails, here defined as the value that can be realized (in times of high uranium market prices) by re-enrichment to natural-equivalent uranium.
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